Additionally: why can we pad our speech with a lot filler language?
* * *
Related Analysis & References
Right here’s the place you’ll be able to be taught extra in regards to the individuals and concepts on this episode:
- “So, Um, How Do You, Like, Stop Using Filler Words?” by Christopher Mele (The New York Instances, 2017).
- “Voice-Specific Effects in Semantic Association” by Ed King and Meghan Sumner (Cognitive Science, 2015).
- “Effects of Phonetically-Cued Talker Variation on Semantic Encoding” by Meghan Sumner and Reiko Kataoka (The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2013).
- “When and Why Did People Start Saying ‘Um’?” by Arika Okrent (Psychological Floss, 2013).
- “A Brief History of the Teleprompter” by Joseph Stromberg (Smithsonian Journal, 2012).
- “Inequality at Work: The Effect of Peer Salaries on Job Satisfaction” by David Card, Alexandre Mas, Enrico Moretti, and Emmanuel Saez (American Economics Evaluate, 2012).
- “Relative Deprivation: A Theoretical and Meta-Analytic Review” by Heather J. Smith, Thomas F. Pettigrew, Gina M. Pippin, and Silvana Bialosiewicz (Character and Social Psychology Evaluate, 2011).
- “Making Things Hard on Yourself, but in a Good Way: Creating Desirable Difficulties to Enhance Learning.” by Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon and Bjork, Robert A. (Psychology and the Actual World: Essays Illustrating Elementary Contributions to Society, 2011).
- “The Hidden-Zero Effect: Representing a Single Choice as an Extended Sequence Reduces Impulsive Choice” by Eran Magen, Carol S. Dweck, and James J. Gross (Psychological Science, 2008).
- Um. . .: Slips, Stumbles, and Verbal Blunders, and What They Mean by Michael Erard (2008).
- “The Native Language of Social Cognition” by Katherine D. Kinzler, Emmanuel Dupoux, and Elizabeth S. Spelke (Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences of america of America, 2008).
- “Neighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being” by Erzo F. P. Luttmer (The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2005).
- Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification by Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman (2004).
- “Big-Fish–Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept: A Cross-Cultural (26-Country) Test of the Negative Effects of Academically Selective Schools.” by Herbert W Marsh and Package-Tai Hau (American Psychologist, 2003).
- “Is More Always Better?: A Survey on Positional Concerns” by Sara J. Solnick and David Hemenway (Journal of Financial Habits & Group, 1998).